Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Online Marketing For Airline Industry - Literature review Example The use of online marketing is quite advantageous for the airline industry because it provides access to potential customers even in the most remote areas of the world. The internet is currently one of the most accessed tools of marketing in the world and because of this; online marketing carries with it a higher possibility of having access to more customers than other traditional means of marketing. Among the biggest advantages of online marketing for the airline industry is that it is not only done at a local level, its marketing campaigns are also done at a regional, national, and international level and this is one of the reasons why this means of marketing is one of the most successful of its kind worldwide. Online marketing is so efficient that it is able to compete effectively against other marketing strategies and in fact, it has an edge over them. When compared to other means of marketing, one is likely to find that online marketing is probably more popular than the others hence more returns to those companies that invest in it. This is means of marketing which most airline industries in the world should aspire to invest in because it is a guarantee of their success not only in the present, but also in the future. The online marketing of an airline company can be used as a means through which it can be able to attract the best talent to seek jobs within it. With some of the best people working for it, not only will such a company be able to offer excellent services, but its reputation is likely to grow, since the internet has become a means through which news travels fast. Making excellent job offers through the internet and acquiring good staff through it is a means to make the public more aware of the company. Because online marketing is one of the leading marketing strategies, this is where most companies and other institutions go to when they need to acquire people in to work for them. In addition, marketing online ensures that a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clients stay up to date with the current knowledge about it as well as ensuring that they take advantage of all offers that the company has to give, hence giving the company a competitive edge over other airlines. Online marketing ensures that an airline is able to make adjustments quickly, according to the changes in the marketing scene in the world and it does this for assisting its clients keep up to speed of things so that they do not lose any opportunities if there are any unexpected changes in the market. Online marketing provides a swift means through which individuals can easily be able to make connections with people and resources which they have need of in order receive the services they want from the airline companies. Context This paper discusses the need for companies in the airline industry to turn to the online marketing in order to reach more customers in the process of marketing their products. It deals with how these companies are moving from the old mode of market ing and relying heavily on new sources such as social networks. Instead of the impersonal marketing modes of the past, these companies have now realized that it is better to deal with potential customers on a more personal basis so that data that is more reliable can be collected. Due to the availability of a lot of data that is brought about by social networks and consumer websites, online marketing
Monday, July 22, 2019
A critical assessment of 2 pieces of drama around the theme of Space Essay In this essay I will be writing about how I performed to pieces of improvised drama based around the subject of space. One of the pieces had to be done in a realistic style and the other an abstract. Initial Reaction to Stimulus When we were first told that are stimulus would be space, we all sat down I and had what could be called a brain storming session. This was to consider how such a broad subject could be perceived in two pieces of drama. First of all we had to consider how space could be identified. There are many kinds of space, which can be made into forms of drama, and we would need to select one that could produce the most gripping. For this we identified just how space could be used, and came up with the following ideas for realistic or abstract piece (we could the ideas into abstract drama later): Space, as in the final frontier, could be used to great effect. Space and the entire notion of the great beyond could be used. Maybe having characters interacting with character not of this planet, maybe contrasting views or morals. Maybe having the outsider coming to earth from space. Using space in this way opens the door to all sorts of personification of space using a science fiction spin. This could be done in some sort of Star Trek, thought provoking scene involving space. Personal space, or the lack of it. For a realistic piece, maybe something to do with the prison system or freedom infringements. If we set it in a cell (an area where there is little space), not only would there be a direct physical relation to space but also the characters will be able to show space in there speech and movements. Taking this idea further, we could show how the lack of space mentally. Instead of the characters talking about space directly, it could be implied indirectly by their psychological flaws. These psychological flaws would have been caused by space, either too much of it or not enough. These are all ideas in their early stages and all need developing. But even at the early stage, the idea of psychological flaws caused by space was very appealing. For the abstract piece of drama, these initial ideas will have to be developed in an entirely different way. It will need other dramatic techniques to fit the criteria A surreal piece would allow us to incorporate more style and personalization in to piece. When thinking about abstract and surrealism in drama, the first thing that comes into my head is to have situation of drama instead of a continuous story. This would allow us to show the subject matter, space, in a number of different ways. Freeze-frames could be used while each character explains information about them and their situation (character monologues). This would show to the audience character depth that could not be seen in just a one short scene. As for the content of this abstract piece, I had some ideas of separate pieces revolving around the subject space. This would allow us to put a lot of imagination in each piece without needing to worry about what would follow it. Groups For the first piece I worked with the following people: Alain Branson Stuart Mulrany Chris Jones Hussian Kerian For the second piece, we decided to split up and work with different. The main reason for this was to keep all the drama fresh with fresh ideas. Although we thought that we were capable of producing another piece drama, tensions were building in the group and we agreed to spilt. For the second piece I worked with: Alain Branson Plot The first piece we worked on had a plot that I think was well structured. It allowed character depth and development. The first two lessons after we formed are group were spent on structuring a plot which could show off are acting talents and incorporate the idea of space. First we decided that it should be based around a main character. An idea that has always interested me was personifying a character subconscious. This might sound a little far fetched but it would give the character more substance and the audience something to relate to. This would not be his conscious or a good or bad angel but a version of himself that is not usually seen. With that starting point we went ahead and considered how the space theme would fit into this idea. We thought a family clash about space would put this character in the right frame to create good drama around him. This could be mirrored with a character that is in a way opposite him. We all thought that it would be a good idea to have a visual conscious for him like with the other character. This would allows us to show the differences in these characters and it would fit in with the number of people in are group. How these conscious would look actually on stage would be greatly influenced by Stuart, who put in a lot to the actual conscious theme. Taking all this we constructed a story which we split up into scenes. This is the first draft of the scenes and what they would contain: Scene 1: This scene would contain an argument between the main character and his Dad. It has to be his Dad because I do not believe any of us could pull of a convincing woman. This argument would be about space, and the childs lack of it. This will end in the character storming out to see his friend. This will show the trouble space has already caused. This will be set in the house. Scene 2: This would be an interlude where the audience gets some in sight into the relationship between him and his conscience. It will be the main character complaining to himself with the conscience talking around him. This will show how the character relates to something, which in essence, him cannot see or hear. This will be set in the walk between his house and the park. Scene 3: This will be conversation between the main character and what appears to be his opposite. This conversation will uncover some back round information about each character and will explain their personality faults. It will also set up the events for the next scene that involves criminal activity brought on by conversation. This will show the parallels between two characters who see and treat space in different ways and how it has effected them. This will be set in a peaceful place, a park Scene 4: In this scene the two main characters will get involved in major arson. This will result in an explosion off stage and the two running off. This shows what space problems can result in. This will be set in the other end of the park. Scene 5: This will be like the first scene, with an argument between the Dad and the main character. This will be a lot fiercer than the first and will increase in tension as it progresses. This is the finale of the drama and will bring out all the aspects of space we have been trying to portray. This will be set back in the house. In terms of evaluating the plot, I am proud of it. I played a big part in crafting it and personally I feel happy with it. Problems with it may be finding enough for the consciences to say and do since they are simply other version of the characters that already present. Casting We found casting very difficult, particularly a part for Hussian. First of all, we thought it would be best if he had the role of the Dad. But we found a stern sort of character wasnt suited for him. We then had the idea of changing the Dad to a Mum. But Hussian playing a woman in my opinion, and on previous acting experience, seems to be type cast and contrary to some people opinion he was cast in a role that would highlight his acting talent. The other characters were relatively easy to cast. Here was the final cast list: Leigh Turner The Dad Alain Branson Gary (the main character) Stuart Mulrany Gary conscience Chris Jones Damien (the character opposite to Gary) Hussian Kerian Damien conscience Set Above is the set we choose to use. It is fairly basic with the stage being split into three sections, one representing the house, one the park and the other the journey in between. The props were also very simple, with a table and chairs representing the house interior and a bench representing the park. Lighting Area of lighting for scenes 1 and 5 Area of lighting for scenes 2, 3, and 4 Costumes The costumes we used were authentic of the parts we played. I played the Dad, so I wore clothes that represented a Dad. I just wore a black T-shirt and jeans, which is what my Dad would wear. Gary wore typical teenage clothes, a bit scurfy to help show the difference between him and Damien. Damien will also were typical teenage clothes, but nothing like Garys. The consciences wore suits. This would show how they different from the other characters and yet still an important part of the drama. We would also be able to visual show aspects of there personality. This means Garys conscious is good, so he wore a white suit and Damiens conscious a black suit. Rehearsals Rehearsal started well with Alain and myself going though the first argument many times. The first argument we thought needed to build in aggression as it went on. We found this hard at the beginning because we found that we got very angry very quickly and needed to take it slower. This was a small problem and was easily overcome. After we had the basic of this scene, we moved on to the bench scene. This scene was hard to rehearse, and certain members of the cast did not help. Small arguments in the group made rehearsing slow and grinding. Out of all scenes, this one was the one that never really was rehearsed to maximum affect. Chris and Stuart, to major parts in this scene, had moments of inspiration that helped give a fuller picture of are story. About half way though the rehearsal time the group came to a discussion that the story needed a more conclusive ending. We needed to change the story and keep the scenes the same so it would not interrupt rehearsals too much. We decided that in scene 4 that Gary would die in the explosion and the final argument would be between Damien and the Dad about the blame. This would show the consequences of space and add to the drama. The explosion would be a red strobe light operated of stage and Damien and Gary would be blown on stage, with only Damien getting up and running any. This means we would have to put in new spin on the final argument so Damien would fit into the ending. We decided that if Damien were to come to see the Dad so it would be Damien trying to explain himself. This would allow Chris to show of his talent (which may not get shown in previous scenes) and allow me to say something different to a different person. The more rehearsal went on, the more we touched up the scene. Stuarts contribution to the way consciences move and talk was a big help. Hussian, Alain and Chriss determination helped finish the scenes kept it all going. Still, I dont think we really got the park scene nailed. Piece 2 After we changed groups, the first thing we did was to decide how to make this piece abstract and surreal. Most of these ideas were covered in the Initial Reaction to the Stimulus. Sam and Alain played a major part in deciding how the play would actually work. We wanted to consider all the ways we could show space in a surreal way so this took quite a bit of time. Instead of just repeating what I said at the beginning the essay, basically we decided to have pieces of drama (with monologues and freeze frames) linked by a tableaux. Admittedly, I would have liked to try something a bit more, well adventurous but this seemed to fit the bill and with the right characterization would create gripping drama. The pieces of drama would involve to 2 conflicting character. The third person in the group would give a monologue while the others are in a freeze frame. After this the characters would return to a platform at the back of the stage and do a tableau reflecting what has just happened. There were 4 pieces if drama and to save confusion, we named the characters with one name, no matter what scene there in. Alain Branson Tony (Gangster, Brother, Teacher) Sam Jordan Harry (Gangster, Dad, Pupil) Leigh Turner Jack (Barman, Brother, Son) Scene 1: Jack is arguing with his Dad (Harry) about space. Jack is child that has had his own way most of his and it is only recently that his Dad had not been allowing him to go out. This sparked the argument. His dad is not over protective, but wants the best for his son. Jack is a typical teenager that is over emotional and arrogant. Sam played the Dad with depth and sternness, just like a real Dad and dominated the scene. I think I played the teenager well, remembering my constant arguing with my folks. The problems with playing a teenager is that in and argument they have limited vocabulary and generally say the same thing over and over. Anyway, I think this was a strong scene that set the standard for the rest of the play. Scene 2: Harry (a schoolboy) is arguing with his teacher (Mr. Tony) about a detention. Harry has been having a few family problems at home and this has crossed over into his schoolwork. This has lead to Mr. Tony having to give him a detention. The argument consisted of Harry trying to explain the situation to the teacher. Sam once again pulled of a very good portrayal of character, but due to the nature of the role was not the dominant character. Alain played an excellent teacher character, really showing talent a presence on stage. Once again, teachers are stubborn so not repeating yourself would have been hard, but Alain was very believable. Scene 3: Tony starts an argument with this brother, Jack. This is over how Jack gets more space and time off of their dad. This is the first time they have had an argument like this one and Tony is unsure how his brother will react. This leads to an argument, which neither of them gain the upper hand until the end, where Jack hits Tony. Alain was very convincing as the somewhat confused Tony, adjusting to the tone of the argument accordingly. I was not so good. I had trouble adapting to the level of aggression I should use in the argument. Scene 4: Two rival gangster have an argument over, wait for it, space and end up shooting each other. The two have a violent history and this is the final straw. The initial meeting takes place in a bar where Tony is enjoy a drink with barman. Harry walks in and the argument between the two eventually leads then to a shot out. Once again Sam and Gary where very convincing drawing on there past experience of gangster roles. I really took a minor part in this scene, letting the gangster create the drama. I did show a friendship with Tony, but this was short lived and explored. This I think was the weakest of the 4 scene and was performed for the wrong reasons (i.e. they were both involved in gangster related drama during the writing stage). Set As you can see, we used a very Brecht set, with very few props to speak of. This minimalist stage meant we had more space for acting and movement. Brecht played a part in designing the stage because we all felt that a performance like this one needed a strong style so it separates it from other abstract pieces. Special lighting was not needed, so full house lights were used. Costumes We all decided to wear suits in all the pieces. This would make it more abstract and they a very versatile to the parts we played (teacher, gangster etc.) Rehearsals We had many rehearsals, which we managed to fit into a very short time space. We went through every scene in order constantly with very little variation. I would like to put a lot more detail into this but there was little else we did. We looked at the tableaux and changed them a few times till they represented each scene perfectly. The monologues were rehearsals a lot till everybody knew what everybody what going to say. Evaluation (of both) Both the performances went very well and very few mistakes. In comparison the two piece are different but with one on going theme. This is that they all show a single characters problem with space. This allowed us to show how different people can react to space. This, however, lead to some of are character sounding the same. I terms of actual work, I think the last group I worked was dedicated than the first and wanted to get the work done more. As is said earlier, some scenes in the first performance I would have liked to go over a few more times. This I think can be related to the size of groups. Think you can get more work done if there is a smaller number in your group. You can concentrate more and work more in a complete group. In terms of plot, I think are first piece was better. This is not that the second piece had no plot, but I think the first performance was more gripping and kept attention better.
Magazine Advertisment Essay Advertisements are everywhere on TV, the internet, movies, magazines, etc. They are there to get people to buy whatever it is that they are advertising. They do it with color, models, and tricky words. In this case my magazine advertised a lip balm called Ã¢â¬Å"Baby LipsÃ¢â¬ . This advertisement says that you can, Ã¢â¬Å"kiss dull lip balms goodbye and instead have baby lipsÃ¢â¬ making it so that woman get interested into buying this product because you will have baby lips. The colors that are being used in my advertisement are grey, black, bright orange, and white. What is being suggested in this advertisement is that you should wear the lip balm shown in the magazine because it will give you baby lips. In the article the picture is of a pretty woman whose whole face is grey, except her lips. The rest of the article is in very light colors making it so that the lip balm and the models lips are the two things stand out the most. Both of them are in a bright orange color that makes them stand out more than anything else in the picture. Also in my advertisement there is a model, she is a female, although you canÃ¢â¬â¢t see all her body and just her face you can tell that she is pretty just by the way her eyelashes and eyebrows are done. The expression on her face is as if the woman is going to give someone a kiss. She has her eyes closed but she looks like if sheÃ¢â¬â¢s in the mood of kissing someone and feels good about that. All these little details are made to imply that with this lip balm everyone will want to get kissed by your baby lips. In the picture there is also a before and after picture of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s lips but you canÃ¢â¬â¢t really tell the difference. Words are a big help in advertising. The words call the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and also can sometimes fool the buyer. In my ad it says Ã¢â¬Å"In one week your lips will be visibly renewed.Ã¢â¬ Although it says that, there is no given proof of it. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide us with a survey of people or percentage of people who says that. Also the word baby lip is in bright orange to get the viewers attention because it stands out who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want baby lips right? There is also a small caption next to the bright orange lip balm that says that itÃ¢â¬â¢s an exclusive lip renew formula. Furthermore the model is saying that she wants a clinical strength care with a kick of color to get woman to buy it because not only does it help you care for your lips but it also gives you some color. The intended audience for the lip balm is young woman or any type of woman who want to get baby looking lips and wants to stand out at the same time. The woman who are interested in this lip balm are probably the ones who are looking for non dull lips and instead interested in lips that are more moisturized and lips that stand out. Lastly, advertising helps buyers learn more about the product but it also tricks buyers into buying stuff that most of the time doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Speed Acceleration And Velocity In this chapter we will look at the concepts of speed, acceleration, and velocity. As we all know gravity is a large factor in the acceleration of an object. For the purposes of this chapter we will differentiate between linear and vertical acceleration as being objects that move linearly or horizontally i.e. linear acceleration, versus objects that fall, fly, or are thrown etc. i.e. vertical acceleration. Vertical acceleration is much more governed by the force of gravity and is covered in greater detail in chapter 12 Newtons Laws. A short section at the end of the chapter addressing vertical acceleration is however included to put the area into context. You may have heard the old adage Speed kills. And you know whether you are driving your car or playing sport its a dangerous variable. Fast athletes are very difficult to handle, as are fast cars. However, having speed is of vital importance in sports. In this chapter well look at speed, velocity and acceleration and the factors that influence them. Speed, acceleration and velocity are all different. If you have ever watched a 100 meter race, you will notice that some athletes start faster than others, so their acceleration is different. Athletes finish the race at different times so their speed is different and athletes reach top speed at different stages so their velocity is different. The key terms to be covered in this chapter are speed, acceleration, velocity, distance, displacement, vertical and horizontal acceleration and velocity. The variables of speed, acceleration, displacement, etc. are about linear kinematics. Kinematics is a general term related to describing motion. Kinematics is also a branch of mechanics (specifically dynamics) that evaluates moving objects. In order to accurately describe kinematics there are certain terms that we must fully understand. They include the terms mentioned above (speed, acceleration, and displacement) and distance, velocity and position. Accurate understanding of these terms will allow us to accurately describe the movement of any object. There is often a lot of confusion about the terms acceleration, speed, and velocity. We often use the term speed in everyday language to imply all three terms and the word fast is an even more general term. Consider the following: A person can be moving fast and not be accelerating. A person can accelerate fast and not have a high velocity or high speed. A nice sporting example was the great Boston Celtics player Larry Bird. Larry Bird was very quick to accelerate over three or four steps, was not very fast at his top speed. So while Larry was very quick and dangerous over 3-4 steps, he would not make a good sprinter because his top end speed was not high. So if an object is accelerating, it is changing its velocity. Acceleration has to do with the change in how fast an object is moving. Therefore, if an object is not changing its velocity, it is not accelerating. We know that distance and displacement have different meanings. The same is true for speed and velocity. Speed can be considered as the rate at which an object covers a certain distance. Objects that move slowly cover distances in long periods of time, i.e., low speed. An object moving quickly covers distance in shorter amounts of time, i.e., high speed. If an object is not moving at all it has zero speed, zero velocity and zero acceleration. Let us consider some of these simple terms in more detail. Position: Position is simply the location of an object in space. You could consider it using coordinates on a map for example, or on a field, or gymnasium. Displacement: Displacement is simply the straight line distance an object has travelled. Distance: Distance is how far an object has travelled in any direction. It is also viewed as the total amount of displacement (regardless of ending position). Look at this simple example. Lets say a basketball court from baseline to baseline is 25m. If a player runs baseline to baseline and back what is his displacement and distance? Distance. This is the easy one since he ran up and down the court so that is 25m + 25m = 50m. Displacement. Since the player ran down the court and back again he ended up in the same place he started. So even though he covered a distance of 50m his displacement is actually zero, since he is back where he started. Lets say the player now runs up and down the court twice. His distance covered would be 25m + 25m + 25m +25m = 100m. Since he ended up back where he started his displacement is still zero. Finally, lets say the player runs from one baseline to the other and stops. In this case both his displacement and distance are the same at 25m. For the most part we use distance rather than displacement to describe movements as it is difficult to correctly measure displacement as we make a lot of turns when we travel. You say displacement is really like the old saying as the crow flies which means straight line. For example, the distance you travel in a car from New York City to Boston might be 250 miles (but your displacement is only 175 miles). When you drive in a car you get on the highway and follow the roads around the coast, over bridges, around hills, around towns etc. However, when you fly the plane flies right over everything in a straight line and you end up only travelling 175 miles (your displacement). Speed Speed is a very general term. Speed is a scalar quantity and is described as Distance divided by time (D/T, where D=distance and T=time). Scalar implies that speed has magnitude but not necessarily any direction, for example temperature or volume. People often use speed and velocity interchangeably but they are different. Speed relates to the distance an object has traveled, while velocity refers to the displacement that has taken place. So, the speed of an object tells us how far an object has traveled in a given amount of time but doesnt tell us anything about the direction in which it traveled. It all sounds a little heavy on the definitions but these are important. Therefore: Average speed = Distance traveled (m) Time (s) Now there are also different types of speed. We refer to them as average speed versus instantaneous speed. When an object is moving it often changes its speed (or direction) during its motion. When there is a change in speed we can alter our definitions. Instantaneous speed is the speed at any given instant, while average speed is the average of all the instantaneous speeds. For example, lets say a runner runs 400m in 60 seconds and crosses the line at 18 kmh or 5 m/s. This means his average speed over the 400m was 6.66 m/s even though he crossed the line at 5 m/s which is his instantaneous speed at the finish line. In other words, he was slowing down as he was getting to the end. If you have ever ran a 400m race then you will now how tired you are at the end and are definitely slowing down. How did we do these calculations? Average speed = Distance/time 400m/60 seconds 6.66 m/s The instantaneous speed recording of 5 m/s would have been measured with a radar or timing device. You could also look at various split times for different portions of the race. Many coaches do in fact do this, so a 400m coach might look at each 100m split and look at both the acceleration and deceleration patterns and average speeds during each of the four separate 100 meters. Here is another problem for you to try. Can you calculate the average speed of a swimmer that completes the 200m butterfly in 2.15 seconds? Answer: 2.15 seconds = 135 seconds. So 200m/135 seconds = 1.48 m/s A 400m freestyler swims the race in 4.10 seconds. The 200m split was 2.02 seconds. Can you calculate the following? a. What was the swimmers average speed for the race? b. What was the difference in speed for the first 200m versus the second 200m? Answer: a. 400m/250 seconds = 1.6 m/s b. First 200m split = 1.64 m/s Second 200m split 1.56 m/s As you can see, the swimmer slowed down over the second 200m. Velocity Velocity is somewhat similar to speed but velocity involves both direction and speed. So, whereas speed is a scalar quantity, velocity is a vector quantity, that is, it has both magnitude and direction. Velocity also uses displacement as opposed to distance. Remember displacement is measured as the straight line distance an object travels from starting to ending position. Velocity is direction sensitive since it is dependent upon displacement. Therefore, when you calculate velocity, you must also keep track of direction. Therefore, if you say an airplane has a velocity of 600 kmh, you would actually be a little vague. You should really say the airplane has a velocity of 600 kmh North. So, speed doesnt worry about direction, velocity does. Velocity is a positive number as we dont have negative velocity. So to summarize, a airplane traveling at 600 kmh as a speed of 600 kmh. The same airplane has a velocity of 600 kmh, North. Finally, the same airplane probably had little acceleration in the middle of its trip as it would only need positive acceleration and negative acceleration during take off and landing. Here is an interesting and challenging little problem for you to solve. Can you fill in the following table with acceleration, speed, and velocity data? We know the following, the direction of travel is south and acceleration doubles every second. If youre feeling confident you can also try and calculate the total distance that was covered over the 6 seconds. Hint! You can use the velocity for each second to help you. Average velocity = Displacement Time Let try some additional calculation examples: For example, if an athlete runs around a 400 meter track in 50 seconds we can calculate numerous factors. What was the distance traveled? What was the displacement? What was the average speed? What was the average velocity? 1. What was the distance traveled? Answer: Easy enough = 400 meters 2. What was the displacement? Answer: Since the athlete ended up in the same place as they started, displacement is equal to zero. 3. What was the average speed? Answer: Speed = Distance/Time = 400 m/60 seconds = 6.66 m/sec 4. What was the average velocity? Answer: Velocity = Displacement/Time = 0/60 seconds. In this case we end up with a value of zero and in this scenario average speed is a better indicator of overall performance. In many situations we actually calculate average velocity as speed because we cant gather the correct information to calculate speed. For example, if a punt returner catches the ball on the 20 yard line and then avoids a few tackles to ultimately score a touchdown twelve seconds later, we assume the punt returner ran 80 yards. In fact, they may have run 100 yards with all the turning and weaving but we cant accurately calculate the true distance traveled and instead use displacement. For our purposes in sports, thats okay. You try the following problem. Review Problems Can you accurately calculate average speed, velocity, distance and displacement for each of the following situations? Hint: You may not be able to calculate them all accurately. Problem: 1. A punt returner catches the ball on his own 40 yard line and scores a touchdown nine seconds later. 2. A 100 meter sprinter runs the 100 meter in 10.0 seconds flat. Acceleration The law of acceleration is Newtons second law and basically states The change of motion of an object is proportional to the force impressed and occurs in the direction in which the force is impressed. So far we have talked about speed and velocity and performed some calculations. However, while speed and velocity are valuable components, they tend to provide us with summary information and very little about specific detail. For example, if we consider the data for a 200 meter race run in 20 seconds we know that average speed was 10 m/sec. However, we would not know any information about who accelerated the fastest or who was leading after 100 meters. This information is also important as it helps with identifying strength and weaknesses in athletes and in developing training programs for particular athletes. The measurement of acceleration is important. Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. Therefore, when acceleration is zero, velocity is constant. So when an object changes speed either by slowing up or down, or changes direction, it is accelerating (or decelerating). We can calculate acceleration by measuring the difference in velocity over the time it took for that ch ange in velocity to occur. Consider this: If you were to watch a 100M race the person leading at the 50M mark doesnt always win the race. The reason for this is that runners have different acceleration and deceleration rates, in other words their speed changes. Athletes vary dramatically in their acceleration. Some athletes are very fast over 40M but not over 100M and vice versa. So: Acceleration (a) = Velocity2 Velocity1 Where V2 is velocity at T2 Tim Where V1 is velocity at T1 Sometimes you will see this presented as the change in velocity (Delta sign Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ ) or the change in time (Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ T) A = Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ V Ã ¢Ãâ Ã¢â¬ T Look at the following acceleration example. Question: A sprinter leaves the starting block at 2.5 m/s. One second later they are traveling at 5.5 m/s. What is the acceleration rate? Answer: V2 V1 = 5.5 m/s 2.5 m/s = 3 m/s squared T 1 You will note that we end up with meters per second squared as our answer would really be presented as 3 m/s/s. Heres another problem to try. Question: A punt returner catches the ball standing still and begins to return. Two seconds later his velocity was 5 m/s. What was his average acceleration over the first two seconds? Answer: V2 V1 = 5 m/s 0 m/s = 3.5 m/s squared T 2 So far we have looked at relatively straightforward examples of speed, acceleration and velocity in that they have all been examples of horizontal movement. Now let us discuss the vertical components of projectile acceleration, speed and velocity. Factors Affecting Acceleration Linear acceleration is affected by many factors and you will recall from chapter ? that the mass of an object is a very important one. Heavier objects accelerate more slowly with a given force. This has to do with both inertia and mass. Heavier objects are harder to both accelerate and decelerate. Think about how easy it is to throw a basketball versus a medicine ball. There are some other points to consider when looking at acceleration, speed, and velocity. First, we now know the units for velocity are meters per second (m/s) and meters per second squared for acceleration (m/s/s). For speed they are also m/s. Since acceleration (like velocity) is a vector quantity, it also has direction associated with it. The direction of acceleration depends on two factors: a. Whether the object is speeding up or slowing down b. Whether the object is moving in a negative (upwards) or positive (downward) direction We can simplify this by saying that if an object is slowing down then its acceleration is in opposite direction of its motion. If it is speeding up then its acceleration is in the same direction as its motion. Therefore: Acceleration (m/s2) = mass (kg)/force (newtons) Vertical speed, acceleration and velocity If you were to throw a ball up in the air and then catch it again at the same height as you released it, how would the ending velocity be? Would it be greater, less, or the same as the release speed? If you guessed the same you would be correct. You see, all objects, whether traveling vertically or horizontally, are subjected to the constant force of gravity (9.81 m/s2). This means that as soon as the ball left your hands it started to negatively (de)accelerate at 9.81 m/s2 until it had no more velocity. Then, it started to positively re-accelerate over the same distance (and time) at a rate of 9.81 m/s2 until you caught it again. This is a very neat relationship as it allows us to make many calculations based on this constant acceleration force. Projectiles are subjected to both vertical and horizontal components in their motion. The horizontal components are affected by the mass of the object and the acceleration force as previously mentioned. The vertical components are also affected by these two factors plus gravity. Consider this statement: A ball shot horizontally (at zero degrees) has the same vertical component as a ball that is simply dropped with no horizontal velocity. What this means is that if you were to throw a pass from your chest and it hit the ground 15 meters away 1.5 seconds later, and at the same time drop a second ball straight down from the same height, they would both hit the ground at the exact same time. What this is showing us is that the force of gravity component is acting consistently regardless of whether the ball has a horizontal component or not. In other words adding a horizon tal acceleration component does not affect in any way the force of gravity. Remember also that gravitational acceleration is a vector quantity comprising both magnitude and direction and acceleration is a squared variable to the magnitude of the force of gravity. This means that for every second an object is in free fall it will accelerate by ad additional 9.81m/s2. Thus the total distance travelled is directly proportional to the square of the time. Or we could say that if an object travels twice the time it will travel four times the distance. If an object travels for three seconds it will cover nine times the distance, for four seconds it is sixteen times the distance travelled in the first second. Look at the following. A coin is dropped from a cliff. The table shows how fast it is travelling at different time points. Question: A boy drops a ball from a balcony and records a time of 3 seconds for the ball to hit the ground. At what velocity did the ball hit the ground? Answer: 29.43 m/s How do we get this answer? Well, remember that gravity acts as a constant 9.81 m/s2. What this means is that for each second the ball is in flight it accelerates an additional 9.81 m/s. So: Insert schematic to demonstrate after 1 second = 9.81 m/s after 2 seconds = 9.81 m/s + 9.81 m/s = 19.62 m/s after 3 seconds + 19.62 m/s + 9.81 m/s = 29.43 m/s This is a simple illustration of the concept. Next question, what velocity would the ball have to be released at ground height for the boy to catch it on the balcony? Answer: A minimum of 29.43 m/s. The answer is the same because gravity and acceleration (or deceleration) is working to the same effect when the ball is moving upwards. This is sometimes referred to a negative acceleration. Question. A boy is standing on a balcony and is curious about how high the balcony is from the ground. The boy drops a ball and records the time it takes to hit the ground. It took 3.2 seconds for the ball to hit the ground. The boy concludes that the balcony is 66.7m high. How did he work it out? Well at the end of the first second the ball was travelling 9.81m/s, at the end of the second the ball was travelling 19.62m/s, at the end of the third second the ball was travelling 29.43m/s. If you add these three distances together you get 58.86 meters travelled after three seconds. If the ball travelled another full second it would travel another 39.24m, but it only travelled in this zone for 0.2 sec. So, 39.24m x 0.2sec =7.84m. Now we add the 58.86m + 7.84m = 66.7m, and thats our answer. There are some other factors to consider with vertical projectiles. The pattern of change in vertical velocity is symmetrical about the apex of the trajectory. So not only does the object land at the same speed it was released, it also follows the reverse flight path on the way down. Using these constant parameters we can now extend our calculations into more complex situations. For example, lets say you are watching a volleyball game in a high school gym with a 10 meter high ceiling. An opponent spikes the ball over the net and a player digs the ball at ground level at which time the ball has a velocity of 15 m/s. The question is will the ball hit the ceiling? To solve for this we can use an equation that combines several variables we talked about already. Where: V2 = velocity at time 2 V1 = velocity at time 1 a = acceleration t = time In order to answer this question we need to look at what we know and what we want to know. Well, we want to know the distance (d) the ball travels. We already know a = 9.81 m/s2 and we know V1 = 15 m/s. We also know that at the apex the velocity is zero, so V2 can be set to zero. So now our formula looks like this: 1. 0 = V1 squared + 2ad 2. 0 = (15 m/s) squared + 2 (-9.81 m/s squared) x d Now if we rearrange to solve for d our formula looks like: = (19.62 m/s squared) x d = 225 m/s squared = d = 11.47 m The answer is yes! The ball will hit the ceiling as it will travel 11.47 m. Heres another similar problem: A ball is deflected vertically at 18 m/s and the ceiling height is 11 meters. Will the ball hit the ceiling? Factors affecting projectile motion We have discussed several factors that affect the movement (or acceleration) of an object. The factors that affect vertical acceleration are the mass of the object, the force (speed) of release and gravity. Horizontal acceleration is affected only by mass and force of release (application). Gravity is of course a factor but not in determining its horizontal component. But sometimes we want to throw objects e.g. discus, hammer, etc. and while these projectiles are influenced by force and mass, there are other factors that influence how far the projectile will travel. We generally recognize three other factors that influence how far a projectile will travel when a constant force is applied. They are: 1. Angle at which projectile is released. 2. The speed of release. 3. The height of release. The optimum angle of release to increase horizontal displacement is 45ÃâÃ °. Projectiles released at over or below this angle will not reach their greatest distance. Look at Table 1 to see how distance traveled varies with changing angles of release. You will see from table 1 that the optimum angle of release is 45ÃâÃ ° and after that the decrease in distance traveled is symmetrical as height compromises distance (I.e. follows the same pattern as increasing angle of release up to 45ÃâÃ °). The greater the speed of release the greater the distance a projectile will travel. This holds true simply because there is a greater acceleration force applied in the first place. Simply put, if you want to throw a ball further you need also to throw it harder. The greater the height of release the greater the distance a projectile will travel. If you consider field sports in athletics you will notice that most successful hammer, discus and javelin throwers are taller, giving the mecha nical advantage over shorter competitors in that event. If you were to throw a ball from the top of a building it would strike the ground much further away than it would if you were to throw it from standing on the ground. If you have watched a discuss competition or a hammer throw you might notice that these athletes are quite tall (often over 1.9m). The reason for this is that these athletes have an advantage over their shorter counterparts as their angle of release is already several centimeters higher. Summary This chapter has provided a basic introduction to the concepts of speed, acceleration and velocity. We have also looked at how differentiating between these variables is important and sometimes difficult. Using some known constants, such as the accelerating force of gravity (9.81 m/s2) allows us to calculate and even predict the speeds, velocities and flight paths of selected projectiles. We have also discussed other factors that affect projectile motion such as height and speed of release. While this information is very important, it is a basic introduction as there are many other more complex factors affecting speed, acceleration and velocity. We did not talk about shape or design or, indeed materials which also play a role in the way particular objects react to forces. The factors are extremely important but for now are beyond the scope of this text. Following this section are additional problems for you to solve and practice. Review Problems Can you provide a one sentence definition for each of the follow terms? Distance Displacement Acceleration Velocity Speed Position Scalar Vector A ball rolls with an acceleration of -.5 m/s 2. If it stops after 7 seconds, what was its initial speed? A wheelchair marathoner has a speed of 5m/s after rolling down a small hill in 1.5sec. If the wheelchair underwent a constant acceleration of 3 m/s 2 during the descent, what was the marathoners speed at the top of the hill? A runner completes 6.5 laps of a 400m track in 12 mins (720 secs). He starts half way around the bend. Can you calculate the following? a. Distance covered: b. Displacement after 12 minutes: c. Runners average speed: d. Runners average pace: min/mile = A soccer ball is rolling across a field. At T = 0, the ball has an instantaneous velocity of 4 m/s. If acceleration occurs at a constant -0.3 m/s2 how long will it take to stop? A batter strikes a ground ball with an instantaneous velocity of 18m/s. If acceleration occurs at -0.7m/s2 how long will it take to stop?
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Exactly one week after graduating from high school, with thirteen years of American education behind me, I boarded a plane and headed for a Caribbean island, I had fifteen days to spend on an island surrounded with crystal blue waters, white sandy shores and luxurious ocean resorts. With beaches to play on by day and casinos to play in during the night, I was told that this country was an exciting new tourist destination. My days in the Dominican Republic, however, were not filled with snorkeling lessons and my nights were not spent at the black jack table. Instead of visiting the ritzy East Coast, I traveled inland to a mountain community with no running water and no electricity. The bus ride to this town called Guayabal, was long, hot and uncomfortable. The mountain roads were not paved and the bus had no air conditioning. Surprisingly, the four-hour ride flew by. I had plenty to think about as my mind raced with thoughts of the next two weeks. I wondered if my host family would be welcoming, if the teenagers would be friendly, and if my work would be hard. I mentally prepared myself for life with out the everyday luxuries of a flushing toilet, a hot shower, and a comfortable bed. Because Guayabal was with out such basic commodities, I did not expect to see many reminders of home. I thought I was going to leave behind my American ways and immerse myself into another culture. These thoughts filled my head as the bus climbed the rocky hill towards Guayabal. When I finally got off the bus and stepped into the town-square, I realized that I had thought wrong: there was no escaping the influence of the American culture. In a way, Guayabal was an example of what author Mary Louise Pratt refers to as a contact zone. Pratt defines a contact zone as "a place where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in contexts of highly asymmetrical relations of power" (Pratt 76). In Guayabal, American culture and American consumerism were clashing with the Hispanic and Caribbean culture of the Dominican Republic. The clash came from the Dominicans' desire to be American in every sense, and especially to be consumers of American products. This is nearly impossible for Dominicans to achieve due to their extreme poverty. Their poverty provided the "asymmetrical relation of power" found in contact zones, because it impeded not only the Dominican's ability to be consumers, but also their ability to learn, to work, and to live healthily.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Works Cited Since the September 11th incident it seems that energy prices have skyrocketed. Not long ago gas prices were a dollar seventy-five, but now it is almost four dollars a gallon. These days gas and energy prices seem to be a weekly topic on local and national news. Every time there is some type of fluctuation, it causes chaos, because it is probably a difference of ten cents and sometimes more. So that raise you received, just throw it right out the window because it is not doing anything for you except paying your energy bills and putting a petite more amount gas in your tank. People point fingers in every direction searching for a scapegoat of this epidemic. Who is truly to blame? Oil companies are to blame for the rising of energy prices. Energy consists of more than just fuel. It is your hot water, electricity, heat, as well as gas. All of these factors are considered energy sources, and the prices of them have significantly increased. "Energy supplies and prices are major economic factors in the U.S. and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable." (Glover and Behrens, Energy: selected facts and numbers) This just shows how important energy is to the United States, which makes sense that oil companies would attempt to overcharge and swindle us because the U.S. is dependent on it. Like the spoiled Americans that most of us are we use energy every day, and if all of a sudden we couldn?t access it things would be chaotic, for instance, the California blackout. Like most issues there is always two sides, just as in this one, and while oil companies ?observe? the energy price crisis, they blame the consumers. This epidemic is a strong battle between the consumers and oil companies. Oil companies think that the... ... bringing in record profits almost every year. This only proves how much of a scandal this epidemic is. The whole issue is solely based on oil companies? exploitation of a situation. The rising of energy prices lie only in the hands of oil companies?not consumers. ?Each quarter of a year, oil companies see record profits.?(We Need Energy Independence, 19A) So every year oil companies are rich and getting richer at the expense of thinning wallets and shrinking bank accounts of consumers, who apparently, according to oil companies, are at fault for this situation. ?Exxon Mobil?s 2nd quarter earnings jumped 35% over last year, Royal Dutch(Shell gas) rose 34%, and Conoco Phillips 51%.?(Oil Companies Profiteering) It is obvious that if oil companies are making all this money at our expense, it only makes sense for them to be at fault because the consumers are not blame.
Ã¢â¬Å"Roberta, you will never get into Princeton University!Ã¢â¬ Said my uncle, who laughed as I exited his car. I never thought I would hear those words come from my Ã¢â¬Å"favoriteÃ¢â¬ uncle. When he told me this, I had many emotions going through my head. At that moment I felt angry with him and myself because at that moment he made me feel like I was nothing. Where was the faith in me and my ability? This man is my uncle, one who is supposed to be my support system. My uncle works for the government as a journalist. He is an extremely intelligent man, but is known for being arrogant and selfish. He tends, to make negative comments regarding my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s level of education and my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s job status. Because he is gainfully employed and has more education than my mother does not make him Ã¢â¬Å"better.Ã¢â¬ My father hasn't lived in the same household as me since my freshmen year of highschool. This gives my uncle the opportunity state that the absence of my father is the reason why we struggle. He also believes that my brother and I will follow in his footsteps: We will not be successful. This story is important because black women are currently being stereotyped as single parents with children, who do not amount to anything. I chose this story because it demonstrates how family can negatively influence people more than strangers. Being part of this experience challenged me to be a better person. It made me rethink who I am, while simultaneously working to prove my uncle wrong. Completing this project will allow me to hear individualÃ¢â¬â¢s stories regarding growing up in single parent households and overcoming struggles despite the odds. The purpose of this study is to find out how living in single parent homes influences the level of success. During... ... Works Cited: Massey, D. S. (2009). The Moynihan Report revisited: lessons and reflections after four decades. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412839-The-Moynihan-Report-Revisited.pdf Powell, Downey. (Feb., 1993). Do Children in Single-Parent Households Fare Better Living with Same-Sex Parents? http://www.jstor.org/stable/352959 Amato, Stolba. (Aug., 1993 ). Extended Single-Parent Households and Children's Behavior http://www.jstor.org/stable/4121111 Dickerson, B. (1995). African American single mothers: understanding their lives and families. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Weldon, Michele.14, May 2012. Single mothers, stand proud http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/13/opinion/weldon-single-mothers/index.html Louv, Richard. 4, February 1999. Single-Parent Success Stories. http://sparkaction.org/node/34